||Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. RPS19 (ribosomal protein S19) encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit. The protein belongs to the S19E family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. Mutations in RPS19 cause Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA， a constitutional erythroblastopenia characterized by absent or decreased erythroid precursors, in a subset of patients. This suggests a possible extra-ribosomal function for this gene in erythropoietic differentiation and proliferation, in addition to its ribosomal function. Higher expression levels of RPS19 in some primary colon carcinomas compared to matched normal colon tissues has been observed. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of RPS19 dispersed through the genome.