||ZAP70 (zeta chain of T cell receptor associated protein kinase 70) encodes an enzyme belonging to the protein tyrosine kinase family, and it plays a role in T-cell development and lymphocyte activation. This enzyme, which is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation, functions in the initial step of TCR-mediated signal transduction in combination with the Src family kinases, Lck and Fyn. This enzyme is also essential for thymocyte development. Mutations in ZAP70 cause selective T-cell defect, a severe combined immunodeficiency disease characterized by a selective absence of CD8-positive T-cells. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been found for ZAP70.